Not only is there evidence for God’s existence from biblical revelation but there are also the philosophical arguments supporting the concept of God’s existence. Admittedly, these arguments may not convince those antagonistic to the Christian faith of its validity. However, they do provide a thought provoking response to those who contend that Christianity does not contain any assemblage of reasoning or logical thought.
What then are the philosophical arguments for God’s existence? They include the ontological argument, the cosmological argument, the teleological argument, the moral argument, the anthropological argument, the religious experience argument and the argument from the existence of miracles: most notably Jesus Christ’s resurrection from the dead.
The Cosmological Argument is the argument from the existence of the world. The universe exists. This implies the existence of a God that brought the universe into existence and continually sustains its existence. This philosophical argument for the existence of God comes in two forms: one modal (having to do with possibility) and the other temporal (having to do with time).
The Modal Cosmological Argument, the argument from contingency, suggests that because the universe might not have existed (i.e. is contingent), we need some explanation of why it does. This is the argument of cause and effect.
Wherever there are cause and effect possibilities, this suggests something must determine not only the reality of the effect, but also offer an explanation for the cause of said effect. Since the universe is conditional to some cause for its existence, and since there must be some reason for its existence, there must be a corresponding cause which give the universe a reason to exist.
The only kind of being whose existence requires no cause is a necessary being, a being that could not have failed to exist. The ultimate cause of everything existing in the universe must therefore be a necessary being: God. God is the only uncaused cause. The Bible sets forth this doctrine.
- Psalm 89:11 – The heavens are yours; the earth also is yours; the world and all that is in it, you have founded them (Psalm 89:11, ESV).
- Psalm 90:1-2 – Lord, you have been our dwelling place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever you had formed the earth and the world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God (Psalm 90:1-2, ESV).
- Psalm 104:5-9 – He set the earth on its foundations, so that it should never be moved. You covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains. At your rebuke they fled; at the sound of your thunder they took to flight. The mountains rose, the valleys sank down to the place that you appointed for them. You set a boundary that they may not pass, so that they might not again cover the earth (Psalm 104:5-9, ESV).
- Acts 17:22-24 – So Paul, standing in the midst of the Areopagus, said: “Men of Athens, I perceive that in every way you are very religious. For as I passed along and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription, ‘To the unknown god.’ What therefore you worship as unknown, this I proclaim to you. The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man (Acts 17:22-24 ESV).
- Hebrews 11:1-3 – Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. For by it the people of old received their commendation. By faith we understand that the universe was created by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible (Hebrews 11:1-3, ESV).
Take the opportunity today to look at the all the effects around you. Creation itself evidences the reasonableness of a preceding cause. The preceding cause is none other than God.
Soli deo Gloria!